Fish Species - Poland

Perch (Perca fluviatilis)

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Physiology and size:

The pelvic and anal fins of perch are yellow to red, the posterior part of the first dorsal fin is covered with dark blotches and the flank has bold dark bars. On the back there are two dorsal fins, clearly separated from each other: the first dorsal fin is grey, with a black spot at the tip and equipped with sharp spikes. The second dorsal is greenish-yellow. The pectorals are usually yellow, while other fins are red. Perch can grow up to more than 3 kg, but this is very rare. Usually, specimens of more than 1 kg are considered big.

Habitat and biology:

The Szczecin Lagoon and the estuary rivers Świna and Dziwna are brackish waters. Perch can be caught at the whole shoreline near the reeds. The waterfront, ports and marinas are very good places where there is plenty of perch. The estuary rivers Świna and Dziwna are famous angling places. Perch are opportunistic diurnal feeders which prey mainly during sunrise and sunset, using all available prey. They often feed on smaller fish.

Minimum size and conservation periods:

The protected length is up to 20 cm. There is no conservation period.

Season and angling techniques:

Perch fishing in the Szczecin Lagoon can be done all year round. A good time for fishing for perch is autumn. The largest specimens are from ice fishing. Good results come while fishing with the float method. The basic bait is redworms or maggots. The spinning method is effective for larger specimen. Use small soft lures of 3–5 cm. The best baits for ice fishing are jig, spinner and bloodworm.

 

Pike (Esox lucuis)

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Physiology and size:

Pike have an elongated, torpedo-like body, a long, flat head and an upturned mouth with sharp teeth. The dorsal and anal fins are situated close to the caudal fin, which helps them ambush predators and to attack their prey very fast. Fish, but also invertebrates, amphibians, mammals and even birds, may serve as prey.

Habitat and biology:

Good places to catch pike are around the islands of Wolin and Karsibor, but also the Stara Świna River. In spring, pike migrate to shallow areas or flooded marshes to spawn. In autumn and winter, they often migrate to deeper areas.

Minimum size and conservation periods:

The protected period in Gdańsk Bay is from 1 January to 15 May, and in other marine waters (to the west from 15°23ʹ14ʺ E) from 1 January to 30 April. The protected length is up to 50 cm.

Season and angling techniques:

Pike fishing in the Szczecin Lagoon can be done all season round. The biggest pike are caught from October to the end of December. The basic method for big pike in the Szczecin Lagoon is trolling with big lures of 25–30 cm. An effective technique is also the vertical method and our specialty, pelagic vertical jigging.

 

Bream (Abramis brama)

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Physiology and size:

Bream are deep bodied, laterally flattened, high backed and have a flattened side body. The eyes and head are small compared to their body size. The mouth is ventral, slightly undershot, and can be extended as a tube. Bream are a silvery grey colour, though older fish can be bronze-gold, especially in clear waters. In good conditions some specimens can grow up to 6–8 kg, but 1–3 kg is most common.

Habitat and biology:

Common bream swim along the coastline, and anglers catch them usually between the first and second shoals. Famous beaches to catch common bream are Międzyzdroje, Dziwnow, Dziwnowek and Rewal. Bream are typical bottom-feeding fish and feed on insects, particularly chironomids, small crustaceans, mollusks and plants. Larger specimens may feed on small fish.

Minimum size and conservation periods:

The protected length is up to 40 cm. There is no conservation period.

Season and angling techniques:

A good time to catch common bream in the Pomeranian Bay is from June to the end of October. Large sea common bream can be caught from the beach using the surfcasting method. Popular lures are redworms and herring fillets.

 

Cod (Gadus morhua)

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Physiology and size:

Cod have a big head with a barbel, and three dorsal and two anal fins. The ventral fin is jugular. The fish are brown marbled, and their lateral organ appears as a white line.

Habitat and biology:

On the west coast, cod are caught from boats or cutters out from Kolobrzeg. In these fisheries cod are caught at a depth of 25 m. It is one of the most important species in the Baltic Sea, and several distinct stocks with different spawning and feeding migration behaviours exist. This species lives near the ground and feeds on fish like herring, sprat and sand eel, as well as on crustaceans and other invertebrates. They are pelagic spawners and the development of the larvae is highly dependent on the salinity and oxygen content of the water.

Minimum size and conservation periods:

The protected length is up to 35 cm. There is no conservation period.

Season and angling techniques:

Cod can be caught all year round in the Polish Sea, and in the open sea they can be caught from a boat. Pilkers and soft bait are used, and a good bait is herring fillets.

 

Sea trout (Salmo trutta)

© Scandinavian Fishing Year Book

 

Physiology and size:

Sea trout have a torpedo-like body, and the upper jaw reaches behind the eye. Except during spawning season, the skin is silver with dark spots, even below the lateral organ. They have an adipose fin, and the edge of the caudal fin is straight. 

Habitat and biology:

Sea trout swim quite close to the shore, and anglers catch them usually between the first and second shoals. It is an anadromous migratory fish species, spawning in the rivers. Young individuals feed on insect larvae and small fish. After migration to the sea, crustaceans, shrimp, bristle worms and fish like sand eel or herring serve as prey. Often coastal waters that offer a variation of sand, aquatic plants and stones or areas close to estuaries are chosen as habitats.

Minimum size and conservation periods:

The protected period is from 15 September to 30 November in sea waters up 4 nautical miles from the shore; from 15 September to 31 December in marine internal waters and in the borders of harbours in Darłowo, Dźwirzyno, Kołobrzeg, Łeba, Rowy and Ustka; and from 25 September to 31 December in marine internal waters in the west from 15°23ʹ14ʺE. The protected length is up to 50 cm.

Season and angling techniques:

The time to catch trout in the Pomeranian Bay is from December to mid-May. The main method for sea trout is spinning from the beach. It is important to give long casts, and wading in the water will increase the effectiveness of the catch. Bait for sea trout is spinners and wobblers. A very popular method is trolling.

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